Chapter 13- Fisheries

Components of Common Fisheries Policy

FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) has identified a number of targets under the fisheries management relating to the protection of the fisheries resources with the new reform policy. The principal aim of fisheries management under the Common Fisheries Policy is to ensure high long-term fishing yields for all stocks by 2015 where possible, and at the latest by 2020. This is referred to as maximum sustainable yield. Another increasingly important aim is to reduce unwanted catches and wasteful practices to the minimum or avoid them altogether, through the gradual introduction of a landing obligation. Lastly, the new CFP has overhauled its rules and management structure, with regionalisation and more extensive stakeholder consultation.

Fisheries management is based on data and scientific advice, and control measures to ensure that rules are applied fairly to and complied with by all fishermen.

Fisheries management can take the form of input control, output control, or a combination of both. Input controls include rules on access to waters, fishing effort controls and technical measures

Rules on Access to Waters:

As a general rule, fishing vessels registered in the EU fishing fleet register have equal access to all the EU waters and resources that are managed under the CFP. Access to fisheries is normally authorized through a fishing licence.

There are two temporary exceptions to this rule of equal access:

  • In the waters up to 12 nautical miles from the coasts of the EU countries access can be limited by the EU country to vessels and fisheries that traditionally fish in those waters from adjacent ports
  • In the waters up to 100 nautical miles from the coasts of Europe's outermost regions access can be restricted to vessels registered in the ports of these territories and to vessels that traditionally fish in those waters.

    Fishing Effort Controls

    Fishing effort management is a combination of limitations to the fleet capacity and the amount of time that can be spent at sea by that fleet. Often effort restrictions are applied in addition to the more generally used system of total allowable catches.

    Fishing effort restrictions have been introduced in a number of situations: under multiannual plans for the management of a specific stock or group of stocks, and more generally area-based. Examples of fishing effort restrictions can be found in for instance the plan for management of the sole and plaice stocks in the North Sea, and in the rules on fishing in the western waters. Management plans in the Mediterranean are sometimes centered around effort restrictions.

     

    Technical Measures

    Technical measures are a broad set of rules which govern how, where and when fishermen may fish. They are established for all European sea basins, but they differ considerably from one basin to another, in accordance with the regional conditions.

    The measures may include:
  • minimum landing sizes and minimum conservation sizes
  • specifications for design and use of gears
  • minimum mesh sizes for nets
  • requirement of selective gears to reduce unwanted catches;
  • closed areas and seasons;
  • limitations on by-catches;
  • measures to minimize the impact of fishing on the marine ecosystem and environment.

    Output controls mainly consist of limiting the amount of fish from a particular fishery, in particular through total allowable catches.

    Total Allowable Catches (TACs)

    The Total Allowable Catch (TAC) is a catch limit set for a particular fishery within a certain region, generally for a year or a fishing season. This management tool aims to directly limit the quantity of fish that will be caught by the fishing fleet. Since there is a decline in the fish stocks due to natural reasons or/and fishing activities, self-renewal of the fish stocks is seen as a must. In order to have mature fish for the purpose of renewal of fish stocks, juvenile fish must be left to grow and reproduce. CFP sets, every year, the maximum amount of fish to be caught in a safe manner.

    While determining the maximum amount of catch called Total Allowable Catches (TACS), the maximum amount of fish that can be caught from a particular stock at any given time must be fixed. The Commission prepares the proposals, based on scientific advice on the stock status from advisory bodies such as ICES and STECF while determining Total Allowable Catches. TACs are set annually for most stocks (every two years for deep-sea stocks).

    Click here for 2015 quota distribution of the EU.

    Discarding and the landing obligation

    Discarding is the practice of returning unwanted catches to the sea. The new CFP does away with the wasteful practice of discarding through the introduction of a landing obligation. The landing obligation will be introduced gradually, between 2015 and 2019 for all commercial fisheries in European waters.

    Under the landing obligation all catches have to be kept on board, landed and counted against the quotas. Undersized fish cannot be marketed for human consumption purposes

    Data Collection and Scientific Advice

EU fisheries management relies on data collected, managed and supplied by EU countries. Under the Data Collection Framework, certain data collected from EU countries provide a basis for the works of organizations such as ICES and STECF for scientific advice activities.

Management of fishing capacity - fishing fleet

Management of fishing capacity serves the aim of a stable and enduring balance between the fishing capacity of the fleets and the fishing opportunities over time.

For fleet segments with overcapacity the member state has to take measures under an action plan, to achieve the balance, for instance through publicly funded decommissioning of vessels. When a member state fails to report or does not implement the action plan, this may lead to proportionate suspension or interruption of the relevant EU funding.

For each EU country a fishing fleet capacity ceiling is established, in kilowatts (kW) and gross tonnage (gt). New fishing vessels may enter the fleet only after the same fleet capacity (in kW and gt) is removed from the fleet. Through this 'entry-exit' system Europe's fleet can no longer increase.

Fisheries Information and Statistics

Under the existing commercial and biological pressures associated with fishing pressure and habitat degradation, sustainability of fish stocks requires a rational management. The effectiveness of the management depends on the quality of information flow and the proper analysis of this information (including data). Therefore there is a need for sufficient data collection system and information transmission channels.

The collection of fisheries data are usually carried out by a public institution concerned with fisheries. However, many organizations and institutions such as fisheries and aquaculture research institutions, fisheries departments of the universities, official fisheries departments, private sector consultants or companies also take role in data collection.

The most important tool for the direct acquisition of the fisheries data is EU fisheries logbook. In addition to the logbook, information can be obtained through landing points and fish sales. Moreover, certain institutions such as ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) also send fisheries data to the EU.

International Policy

European Union is the largest single fisheries market in the world and a net importer of fish and fish products. More than a quarter of the fish caught by European fishing boats are actually taken outside EU waters. Every three years, the EU establishes autonomous tariff quotas (ATQs) for certain fish and fish products. An ATQ allows a certain quantity of a product to be imported into the EU at a reduced tariff rate – typically, 0%, 4% or 6%. The quotas help increase the supply of the raw materials which the EU processing industry relies on, at times when EU supply is not sufficiently high to meet the demand.

The international dimension of the CFP has gained importance in recent years. There has been an increase in the bilateral/multilateral agreements and in the negotiations with the regional/ international fisheries organisations in order to both provide responsible fishing activities and agree on the management methods of the fisheries resources. International trade on the fish products has also become important for the Union. The existence of a global market in the fish products brings several advantages in terms of various selection and price opportunities for the consumers.

However, in addition to the advantages, this situation carries great risks for the protection of public health and responsible fishing. There is a growing need for more international cooperation in order to prevent these two great risks.

A large part of the European fishing fleet has been fishing either in the international waters or in the waters under the jurisdiction of third countries through the fishing agreements the Union makes with them.

International fisheries relations which have two main components as "signing fisheries agreements after the claim of exclusive economic zones (EEZS) or fishing zones by the third states" and "participation of the EU (as a member or observer) to the various international conventions aiming rational use of the fish stocks within the high seas" have increasingly become important for the EU whose internal fish resources has been rapidly decreasing.

Union has unique competition in the international relations in terms of fisheries. European Commission, on behalf of the Union, has been negotiating and signing fisheries agreements with the third countries and Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs).

Bilateral Agreements:

Bilateral fisheries agreements between the EU and third countries reveal a general framework of the Union fleet to reach third country's waters. The structure of the fisheries agreements vary according to interests of the parties.

With the northern countries which have strong fleet capacity and possibility to benefit from their fish resources, reciprocal agreements have been signed. Both the Union and northern countries have reciprocal rights to fish in the waters of each other. For the other third countries which do not have possibility to utilise their fisheries resources, the EU has been signing fisheries agreements in which the EU gives financial and technical support in exchange for fishing rights. This support is not only granted to the third country's state budget but also given for the areas that may affect the interests of the concerned trading partners such as fishing researches, training for the management of fisheries, assistance for the small-scale fishing.

The EU has 2 types of fishing agreements with non-EU countries as "fisheries partnership agreements and "northern agreements". Under the fisheries partnership agreements, the EU gives financial and technical support in exchange for fishing rights, generally with southern partner countries. In these agreements based on tuna fish and mixed fish stocks, the EU fleet gains right to fish in the exclusive economic zones of the non-member countries; in exchange for this right, the non-member countries gain rights to access to the exclusive economic zones of the Member States and take sectoral economic support. These agreements also focus on resource conservation and environmental sustainability, ensuring that all EU vessels are subject to the same rules of control and transparency.

Agreements signed with the northern countries also provide joint management of shared stocks with Norway, Iceland and the Faeroe Islands.

List of Fisheries Agreements Signed with Non-Member Countries:

CountryExpiry dateTypeTotal contribution from the EU budget per year (€)Earmarked for fisheries policy development
AngolaNo protocol in force.
Cape Verde22.12.2018Tuna550 000 / 500 000275 000 / 250 000 €
Comoros31.12.2016Tuna600 000300 000
Côte d'Ivoire30.06.2018Tuna680 000257 500
Gabon23.07.2016Tuna1 350 000450 000
GambiaNo protocol in force.
Greenland31.12.2015Mix17 847 2442 743 041
GuineaAgreement and its protocol have temporarily been implemented during the year of 2009, then it was repealed.
Guinea-Bissau23.11.2017Mix9 200 0003 000 000
Equatorial GuineaNo protocol in force.
Kiribati15.9.2015Tuna1 325 000350 000
Madagascar31.12.2018Tuna1 566 250 / 1 487 500700 000
MauritaniaProtocol expired on 15 December 2014
Mauritius27.01.2017Tuna660 000 302 500
MicronesiaNo protocol in force since 25.2.2010
Morocco27.02.2015Mix30 000 00014 000 000
Mozambique31.01.2015Tuna980 000460 000
São Tomé and Principe22.05.2018Tuna710 000 / 675 000 325 000
Senegal19.11.2019Tuna (+ hake component)1 808 000 / 1 668 000 750 000
Seychelles17.01.2020Tuna

5 350 000 (2014)

5 000 000 (2019)

2 600 000
Solomon IslandsNo protocol in force since 9.10.2012

Northern Agreements

CountryPeriod
Faeroe Islands2006 - 2012
Iceland2009 - 2015
Norway2009 - 2015

Multilateral Agreements:

The law which applies to the high seas is founded on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which entered into force in 1994. The Union has an active role in the development of international agreements such as UNCLOS.  These agreements aim to create a legal order for the seas and oceans; to provide fair and efficient utilization of the resources for peaceful purposes of ocean and sea and to promote the protection of living resources and the protection and preservation of the marine environment. An important element of UNCLOS was the undertaking by all signatory countries to promote sustainable fishing.

Since the adoption of UNCLOS, a number of agreements have been developed to deal specifically with how to bring about sustainable fishing on the high seas. One of them is the Agreement on straddling stocks and highly migratory fish stocks (1995).

Also, under the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Agreement on compliance with conservation and management measures (1993) and Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (1995) have been adopted. The EU is also party to the Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing adopted at the session of 36 of the FAO Conference in November 22, 2009 and so far signed by 22 countries. The agreement was prepared to provide a binding legal framework to ensure the prevention of the Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing which is the one of the most important issues in the international fisheries agenda. With the agreement it is intended to take measures in this area through cooperation at international level. In this context, effective measures by port states are demanded to be taken and several sanctions are foreseen such as non-acceptance of the vessels which are involved in illegal fishing activities to the ports.

The EU has also entered other international agreements and conventions that have a bearing on fisheries. Among them is the commitment made at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 to reduce fishing to the level which gives the highest yield in the long run (maximum sustainable yield) by 2015 and to use an ecosystem approach in fisheries management. The EU is party to the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

Relations with Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs):

European Union wants to play an active role in the provision of sustainable fisheries. Therefore, it applied for several regional fisheries organisations. The EU is the full member of some of these organisations and participating to the others as an observer.

Regional fisheries organisations are established through the international conventions. These organisations present a framework on the management methods of the fish resources to the government representatives who met to negotiate an agreement on this issue. The main purpose of these organisations is to strengthen regional cooperation in order to provide sustainable exploitation and preservation of fisheries resources in the important seas.

Management measures of regional organisations consist of:

  • Determination of  maximum catch levels or Total Allowable Catches (TACs) in the fisheries regions concerned (TACs can be divided among the members of the organisation) ,
  • Closure of fishing in certain regions throughout the year or during a certain time period,
  • Regulation or prohibition of certain fishing gears and methods,
  • Formation of common control or implementation plans giving authorisation to the control expert of parties in order to inspect the vessels of each other,

The Union demands to promote sustainable fisheries. Therefore, it has applied for the membership of various regional fisheries organisations.

List of the organisations the EU is a member/party:

  • Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO),
  • Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO),
  • Northeast Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC),
  • Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC),
  • North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organisation (NASCO),
  • International Baltic Sea Fishery Commission (IBSFC),
  • Convention on Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR),
  • International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT),
  • General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM),
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD),
  • Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC),
  • World Trade Organisation (WTO),

    The Commission represents the EU in six tuna and 11 non-tuna regional fisheries management organisations in which the EU fleet work or may benefit from working together in the future.

    Tuna Organisations:
  • International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT)
  • Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC)
  • Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)
  • Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC)
  • Agreement on the International Dolphin Conservation Program (AIDCP)
  • Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna (CCSBT)

Non-tuna Organisations:

  • Northeast Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC)
  • Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO)
  • North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organisation (NASCO)
  • South-East Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (SEAFO)
  • South Indian Ocean Fisheries Agreement (SIOFA)
  • South Indian Ocean Fisheries Agreement (SPRFMO)
  • Convention on Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)
  • General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM)
  • Convention on the Conservation and Management of Pollock Resources in the Central Bering Sea (CCBSP)

Advisory RFMOs:

  • Western Central Atlantic Fisheries Commission (WECAFC)
  • Fisheries Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF)

    MARKET AND TRADE POLICY

    Common Market Organisation of the CFP which is laid down in the Regulation No 1379/2013 (EU) consists of following components:
  • Professional Organisations
  • Consumer Information
  • Marketing Standards
  • Market Intelligence
  • Competition Rules

In this Regulation, producer organisations are defined as professional organisations; moreover, in addition to the rules on fisheries producer organisations, the establishment and recognition of aquaculture producer organisations and rules that will be implemented by them are also clarified. The reason for the definition of rules on aquaculture producer organisations is the inadequacy of fisheries products when it is compared with the quantity of consumption of total population and EU's dependence on importation of fish products to meet the demand. For the provision of import-export balance, there is a need for the increase in aquaculture production. For the aquaculture production to be increased aquaculture producer organisations should be strengthened and they should dominate the market.

Within the Regulation No 1379/2013 (EU), the aims of the producer organisations and the measures that will be taken by them to apply these aims are laid down in detail.

Fisheries producer organisations should pursue the following objectives in order to develop and implement technical measures within the scope of last reform:

  • Avoiding and reducing as far as possible unwanted catches of commercial stocks and, where necessary, making the best use of such catches, without creating a market for those that are below the minimum conservation reference size,
  • Promoting the viable and sustainable fishing activities of their members in full compliance with the conservation policy,
  • Contributing to the elimination of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing,
  • Contributing to the traceability of fishery products and access to clear and comprehensive information for consumers

Aquaculture producer organisations should pursue the following objectives:

  • Promoting the sustainable aquaculture activities of their members,
  • Ascertaining that the activities of their members are consistent with the national strategic plans,
  • Endeavouring to ensure that aquaculture feed products of fishery origin come from fisheries that are sustainably managed.

In addition to this, producer organisations may make use of the following measures:

  • promoting vocational training and cooperation programmes to encourage young people to enter the sector;
  • reducing the environmental impact of fishing, including through measures to improve the selectivity of fishing gears;
  • promoting the use of information and communication technology to improve marketing and prices;
  • facilitating consumer access to information on fishery and aquaculture products;
  • collecting information on the marketed products, including economic information on first sales, and on production forecasts;

    Through these measures, the EU aims that producer organisations:
  • Make market research to prevent over exploitation and to provide sustainability,
  • Raise awareness of their members through training programmes,
  • Inform consumers about the nutritional value and the importance of non-commercial species.

As is known, the small-scale fishing has an important place in the EU. It is expected from the producer organisations that they ensure the sufficient participation and high representation of the small-scale fishermen within the organisation.

Within the European Union, fisheries and aquaculture producer organisations should prepare an annual plan called Production and Marketing Plan on behalf of their members. Commission Recommendation of 3 March 2014 lays down the details of this plan. According to this Recommendation, Production and Marketing Plan should include:

  • A production programme for caught or farmed species;
  • A marketing strategy to match the quantity, quality and presentation of supply to market requirements;
  • Measures to be taken by the producer organisation in order to contribute to the objectives laid down in regulation no. 1379/2013 (EU)
  • Special anticipatory measures to adjust the supply of species which habitually present marketing difficulties during the year;
  • Penalties applicable to members who infringe decisions adopted to implement the plan concerned.

Financial supports given by the EU to the producer organisations have been decreased after the last reform process. Price and intervention mechanism which were constituted to support producer organisations have been modified through the new Regulation (1379/2013). The previous intervention system caused public spending to be used in a manner which caused to the overexploitation. Therefore, this mechanism was found unsustainable. Therefore, previous two mechanisms – guide price and withdrawal price – were removed, and in place of these, trigger price which would be used by the producer organisation to benefit from the storage mechanism has been introduced.

The trigger price shall not exceed 80 % of the weighted average price recorded for the product in question in the area of activity of the producer organisation concerned during the three years immediately preceding the year for which the trigger price is fixed. Member States determine the trigger prices to be applied by those producer organisations. Storage mechanism will allow producer organisations to buy up fisheries products when prices fall under a trigger price, and store the products for placing on the market at a later stage. Through this way, the system will foster market stability.

The European Maritime and Fisheries Fund will support following activities under the Common Market Organisation:

  • Production and Marketing Plan
  • Storage Mechanism
  • Marketing Measures:
    • creating producer organisations, associations of producer organisations or inter-branch organisations to be recognised
    • finding new markets and improving the conditions for the placing on the market of fishery and aquaculture products
    • promoting the quality and the value added of the products.

      The storage mechanism will end by 31 December 2018, and then, there will not be any financial support provided to the producer organisation under the price and intervention mechanism. Moreover, it is the Member States' own preference to put storage mechanism into effect in their country till 2019.

      Click here to see the infographic on the CMO.

Financing the CFP

EUROPEAN MARITIME AND FISHERIES FUND

European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF) was adopted on 15 May 2015. The EMFF aims to fund the EU's maritime and fisheries policies from 2014 to2020. The EMFF aims to achieve the following objectives:

  • promoting competitive, environmentally sustainable, economically viable and socially responsible fisheries and aquaculture
  • fostering the implementation of the CFP
  • promoting a balanced and inclusive territorial development of fisheries and aquaculture areas
  • fostering the development and implementation of the Union's IMP in a manner complementary to cohesion policy and to the CFP

The total budget of the Fund is EUR 6.396.607.000. The budget divided into share that one is available for commitments under shared management (EUR 5.749.331.600) and the other is available for commitments under direct management (EUR 647.275.400). EUR 4.340.800.000 of the budgetary resources is allocated to the sustainable development of fisheries, aquaculture and fisheries areas, to marketing and processing-related measures and to technical assistance at the initiative of the Member States.

MEASURES FINANCED UNDER SHARED MANAGEMENT

  • Sustainable development of fisheries
  • Sustainable development of aquaculture
  • Sustainable development of fisheries and aquaculture areas
  • Marketing and processing related measures
  • Compensation for additional costs in outermost regions for fishery and aquaculture products
  • Accompanying measures for the CFP under shared management
  • Technical assistance at the initiative of Member States
  • The IMP measures financed under shared management

MEASURES FINANCED UNDER DIRECT MANAGEMENT

  • Integrated maritime policy
  • Accompanying measures for the CFP and the IMP under direct management
  • Technical assistance
  • Scientific advice and knowledge
  • Control and enforcement
  • Voluntary financial contributions to international organizations
  • Market intelligence
  • Advisory Councils
  • Communication activities under the CFP and the IMP

The support from EMFF shall be financed based on certain rates ones who would like to benefit from the EMFF shall be given based on certain rates. The maximum and minimum EMFF contribution rates shall be 75 % 20 % of eligible public expenditure respectively. The EMFF contribution rate can be different percentage points to some specific objectives.

The beneficiary should apply to member state bodies to be benefited from EMFF. The beneficiaries, after submitting the application, should continue to comply with those admissibility requirements throughout the period of implementation of the operation and for a period of five years after the final payment to the beneficiary concerned.

Click here to see the infographic on EMFF​.

The CFP Reform


2013 Reforms

New regulation on Common Fisheries Policy was put into force in 2013. In addition, a new regulation on the common organization of the markets in fisheries and aquaculture products also was put into force in same year. Then, in line with the priorities and policies in basic regulations, European Maritime and Fisheries Fund was established to support fisheries sector financially.  New policies and measures have revealed after enactment of regulations above on common fisheries policy since 2014.
Fisheries Management and Conservation Policy Reforms
Basic Regulation no 1380/2013 of 11 December 2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy was put into force within the scope of Common Fisheries Policy reform repealed three EU regulations and amended two Council Regulations. Through publishing the basic regulation an important progress has been accomplished in CFP reform.
On regulation no 1380/2013 includes conservation and management of not only marine biological resources, but also freshwater biological resources and marketing and financial measures. The objectives of CFP are widening compare to 2002 reform. Accordingly, objectives of CFP are; 
·         Ensuring that the fisheries and aquaculture activities are environmentally sustainable in the long-term and are managed in a way that is consistent with the objectives of achieving economic, social and job opportunities.
·         The precautionary approach to fisheries management,
·         The ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management,
·         Gradually elimination of discards with the help of best available scientific advice,
·         Provide conditions for economically viable and competitive fisheries and processing industry and land-based fishing,
·         Adjust the fishing capacity of the fleet economically
·         Promote the development of aquaculture sector,
·         Promote coastal fishing activities,
·         Take into account the interests of both consumers and producers,
·         Contribute to an efficient and transparent internal market for fisheries and aquaculture products,
CFP applies to precautionary approach to fisheries management and aims to maintain populations of fish stocks above biomass levels capable of producing maximum sustainable yield. The maximum sustainable yield exploitation rate shall be achieved by 2015 where possible and, on a progressive, incremental basis at the latest by 2020 for all stocks.
To be coherent with the Union environmental legislation, regulation no 1380/2013 also refers to Directive 2008/56/EC in particular with the objective of achieving a good environmental status by 2020 as set out in Article 1(1) of Directive 2008/56/EC, as well as with other Union policies.
With new regulation, in the waters up to 12 nautical miles from baselines under their sovereignty or jurisdiction, Member States are authorized, until 31 December 2022, to restrict fishing to fishing vessels that traditionally fish in those waters from ports on the adjacent coast, without prejudice to the arrangements for Union fishing vessels flying the flag of other Member States under existing neighborhood relations between Member States.
On Conservation of resources, while the recovery and management plans are in regulation no 2371/2002 separately, regulation no 1380/2013 proposes multi-annual plans. It is stated in the regulation that multi-annual plans shall account their likely economic and social impact in addition to adopt conservation measures. Multiannual plans may also include measures to gradually eliminate discards, taking into account the best available scientific advice, or to minimize the negative impact of fishing on the ecosystem and specific objectives for the freshwater part of the life cycle of anadromous and catadromous species.
Conservation measures that necessary for compliance with obligations under Union environmental legislation and avoidance, landing obligation and minimization of unwanted catches are new measures in conservation policies. For landing obligation, a transition time-frame adopted according to targeted species.  By 1 January 2019, all species captured in the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and other Union waters will have been subjected to landing obligation.
When allocating the fishing quotas, Member States shall take account of the composition of vessels involved in fisheries. New scientific evidence shows that where there is a significant disparity between the fishing opportunities that have been fixed for a specific stock and the actual state of that stock, Member States having a direct management interest may submit a reasoned request to the Commission for it to submit a proposal to alleviate that disparity.  Member States shall also take account of the impact of fishing on the environment economy, social status, the contribution to the local economy and historic catch levels. Within the fishing opportunities allocated to them, Member States shall endeavor to provide incentives to fishing vessels deploying selective fishing gear or using fishing techniques with reduced environmental impact, such as reduced energy consumption or habitat damage.
New regulation stated the regional cooperation on conservation measures among Member States. Member States may submit joint recommendations for achieving of the relevant Union conservation measures. Data necessary for fisheries management, manage those data and make them available to end–users will be funded through the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund. The regulation aims to avoid duplication of data collection and to easy reach to data.
The regulation set out the objectives of external policy.  The regulation stated that sustainable fisheries partnership agreements with third countries shall establish a legal, environmental, economic and social governance framework for fishing activities carried out by Union fishing vessels in third country waters. It also refers to UN Convention on the Law of the Sea for activities in third countries waters.
Another new measure of Regulation no 1380/2013 aims to promote sustainability of aquaculture and contributing to food security and supply, growth and employment. It may contribute to innovation, competitive environment and encourage economic activities. In addition, Member states will set out multi-annual national strategic plan including the Member State's objectives and the measures and the timetables necessary to achieve those objectives. Common Market Organisation as a basic component of the regulation no 1380/2013, objectives are identified on it. The part about financial instruments stated the basic rules of distribution of financial assistance to the Member States.
Regional Advisory Councils established by regulation no 2371/2002 are re-established under 1380/2013 as Advisory Councils. The regulation newly established an advisory council for aquaculture, an advisory council for markets, and an advisory council for the Black Sea. Moreover, the activities and relations with RFMO's regulated under a separate article. The importance of implementation of the best available scientific advice, transparency and enhancement of the international cooperation is asserted.
The Commission should report to the European Parliament and to the Council on the status of fish stocks and progress achieved on maximum sustainable yield via annual reports.
Reforms on Common Market Organization in Fishery and Aquaculture Products
The Regulation of 1379/2013 (AB) of 11 December 2013 on the common organization of the markets published within the scope of reform process repealed Council regulation (EC) no 104/2000 and certain regulations which are set the details of regulation no 104/2000. New regulation makes important changes about producer organisations, consumer information, and price and intervention mechanism.
Regulation no 1379/2013 on Common Market Organization is compromised of the following elements;
·         Professional Organizations
·         Consumer Information
·         Marketing Standards
·         Marketing Intelligence
·         Competition Rules
With new regulation, distinctive from 104/2000, producer organizations are defined under 'professional organizations' and classified as fishery producer organizations and aquaculture producer organizations. The reason of this development is that the EU fisheries sector cannot supply the demand for fisheries product and import them third countries. For stabilization of the foreign trade in fishery and aquaculture products, it is important for the EU increases the aquaculture production and strengthens producer organizations to be effective in the market.
As a result of the reform, compare to old regulation, the objectives of producer organizations widened and detailed to implement and dissemination of those objectives. For example, in the reform process as regard to improvement and implementation of technical measures, fishery producer organizations are responsible for;
·         making the best use of non-targeted catches of  commercial stocks and, where necessary, marketing or creating alternative usage of such catches
·         promoting the viable and sustainable fishing activities of their members in full compliance with the conservation policy
·         Providing access to clear and comprehensive information for consumers
·         contributing to the elimination of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing
·         contributing to the traceability of fishery products
Aquaculture producer organizations are responsible for;
·         promoting the sustainable aquaculture activities of their members
·         ascertaining that the activities of their members are consistent with the national strategic plans
·         endeavouring to ensure that aquaculture feed products of fishery origin come from fisheries that are sustainably managed
In addition to this, producer organisations may make use of the following measures:
·         promoting vocational training and cooperation programmes to encourage young people to enter the sector;
·         reducing the environmental impact of fishing, including through measures to improve the selectivity of fishing gears;
·         promoting the use of information and communication technology to improve marketing and prices;
·         facilitating consumer access to information on fishery and aquaculture products;
·         collecting information on the marketed products, including economic information on first sales, and on production forecasts;
Another new measure set out through new Regulation that the producer organizations should prepare production and marketing plan rather than operational program. Commission recommendation of 3 March 2014 presents details of this plan. The recommendation stated above stated that the production and marketing plan should include following topics:
·         A production programme for caught or farmed species;
·         A marketing strategy to match the quantity, quality and presentation of supply to market requirements;
·         Measures to be taken by the producer organisation in order to contribute to the objectives laid down in Regulation No. 1379/2013 (EU)
·         Special anticipatory measures to adjust the supply of species which habitually present marketing difficulties during the year;
·         Penalties applicable to members who infringe decisions adopted to implement the plan concerned.
The second important change within the new Regulation in addition to the amendment of the rules on producer organizations has done on the rules about price triggering mechanism. New regulation no 1379/2013 reformed the price triggering mechanism. The previous intervention system caused public spending to be used in a manner which caused to the overexploitation. Therefore, this mechanism was found unsustainable. Therefore, previous two mechanisms – guide price and withdrawal price – were removed, and in place of these, trigger price which would be used by the producer organisation to benefit from the storage mechanism has been introduced.
The trigger price shall not exceed 80 % of the weighted average price recorded for the product in question in the area of activity of the producer organization concerned during the three years immediately preceding the year for which the trigger price is fixed. This mechanism will help to producer organizations to established a simplified storage mechanism to withdraw the excessive products from market when prices are below the trigger price and this help to balance the market prices as well.
Within the Regulation (EU) no 508/2014 of 15 May 2014 on the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund, the budget allocated for the storage measures of Common Market Organization in 2014-2018, is 44.976.000 (total budget of EMFF under shared Management is 5.749.331.600 €). This budget covers following measures:
·         Production and marketing plan
·         Storage aid
·         Marketing measures:
·         creating producer organizations, associations of producer organisations or inter-branch organisations to be recognised
·         finding new markets and improving the conditions for the placing on the market of fishery and aquaculture products
·         promoting the quality and the value added
Finally, the reform of common market organization, come up with important changes about consumer information. There are compulsory and voluntary informations that should provided in the labels to inform the consumers. The compulsory information that should be presented on the labels are the commercial designation of the species and its scientific name, the production method, the area where the product was caught or farmed, and the category of fishing gear used in capture of fisheries. As a result of this, provision of the information about the way fish was caught (for example this fish is caught through 'small scale fisheries', 'hand line fishing' 'log line', 'trawling net)' on the labels gives certain, open and detailed information to consumers. In addition, the old policy had allowed the sale of a product that was frozen for a long time, in the market as fresh product. Within the new regulation, provision of the information on whether the product has been defrosted and the date of minimum durability has become compulsory in order to preserve consumers from disinformation and to help them to give priority to local and fresh products. In addition to the mandatory information required, the following information may be provided on a voluntary basis:
(a) the date of catch of fishery products or the date of harvest of aquaculture products;
(b) the date of landing of fishery products or information on the port at which the products were landed;
(c) more detailed information on the type of fishing gear, as listed in the second column of Annex III;
(d) in the case of fishery products caught at sea, details of the flag State of the vessel that caught those products;
(e) environmental information;
(f) information of an ethical or social nature;
(g) information on production techniques and practices;
(h) information on the nutritional content of the product.
The Commission should, by 1 January 2015, submit to the European Parliament and to the Council a feasibility report on options for an eco-label scheme for fishery and aquaculture products, in particular on establishing such a scheme on a Union-wide basis and on setting minimum requirements for the use by Member States of a Union eco-label.
 
Another topic added to the new regulation is "market intelligence". The Commission is responsible for gathering, analyzing and disseminating economic knowledge of the Union market for fishery and aquaculture products and provision of the practical support to producer organizations and inter-branch organizations to better coordinate information between operators and processors. Market information should be available to all the stakeholders and to the general public in an accessible and understandable manner.
Different from regulation no 104/2000, on regulation no 1379/2013, "competition rules" are regulated under a different section. Council regulations no 2136/89, 1536/92 and 2406/96 and Commission regulation no 3703/85 on Common Marketing Standards have remained in force. Moreover, the part called "trade with the third counties" which constituted the external aspect of the previous Regulation on common market organization was deleted.
Within the new Regulation, it is stated that the external dimension of common market organization will continue to be regulated by Council Regulation (EU) no 1220/2012 of 3 December 2012 on trade related measures to guarantee the supply of certain fishery products to Union processors from 2013 to 2015 and regulation (EU) No 1026/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on certain measures for the purpose of the conservation of fish stocks in relation to countries allowing non-sustainable fishing.
Reforms on Structural Measures and Financial Instruments
The most important reform on structural policy is the adaptation of regulation (EU) No 508/2014 of 15 May 2014 on the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund and repeal of Council Regulations (EC) No (EC) No 861/2006 on European Fisheries Fund. EMFF, which came into effect after a long reform period, provides financial help for maritime policy and fisheries policy through a single fund. In addition, EMFF was prepared in line with the common provisions that Regulation No 1303/2013 lays down on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund, the Cohesion Fund, the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development and the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund. Ensuring the coordination of the structural funds in all sectors is seen as a practical and efficient way in order to more effectively fulfill the main objectives. The objectives of EMFF are;
·         Promoting competitive, environmentally sustainable, economically viable and socially responsible fisheries and aquaculture sector;
·         Fostering the implementation of the CFP,
·         Promoting a balanced and inclusive territorial development of fisheries and aquaculture areas
·         Conducting fisheries and aquaculture policies of the EU in a manner consistent with the other policies,
·         Prevention of the increase in fishing capacity due to the pursuit of those objectives.
EMFF, covers the policies of regulation no 1380 on Common Fisheries Policy, regulation no 1379/2013 on Common Market Organization for fishery and aquaculture products, Integrated Maritime Policy and other policies on fisheries, environment and competition. By financial help, policies and priorities in legislation above will be encouraged and implemented.
EMFF assert the importance of energy efficiency, innovation, reduction of environmental damage and sustainability at every stage of fisheries and aquaculture sector. The sustainability of sector is not only about economical sustainability of sector, but also sustainability of every stage of sector and socio-economic sustainability of small fisheries regions.  The one of the aims of Commission via joint management of maritime and fisheries policies is provide that socio-economic sustainability. This policy aims integrated management of tourism, sea transportation, energy production, fisheries and aquaculture, waste management, environmental protection, marine research. Moreover, scientist, public manager and sector stakeholder will come together and communicate and interact.by this way, EMFF provide both inter-sectorial interaction and inter-actor relations as well.
Finally, it is seen that especially aquaculture production has become important and the fishing effort is tried to limited in many measures on EMFF.  The most important success of the Fund is that it provides both inter-sector and inter-actor communication, coordination. Unfortunately, the remaining power of Member States on fisheries is a potential threat to success of the fund and may weaken coordination across the Union.

Harmonisation of CFP in Turkey

Fisheries is one of the 8 Chapters which is not open to accession negotiations, based on the decision taken by the EU General Affairs and External Relations Council on 11 December, 2006.

In order to overcome the discrepancies on the EU Acquis, harmonisation for EU CFP has started under the former General Directorate of Protection and Control (July 2011).

Explanatory and Detailed Screening Meetings were carried out in Brussels at in February 24, 2006 and March 31, 2006 respectively.

The Screening report under Fishery Chapter has not still been officially submitted and unlike other chapters for which our Ministry is responsible, no benchmark was determined. Regardless of these developments harmonisation efforts are carried out through:

  • Restructuring of the Ministry was completed in 8 June 2011 and a new "General Directorate of Fisheries and Aquaculture" was established.
  •  The work on the "Draft Law Amending the Fisheries Law" was completed and submitted to the relevant institutions in order to put into the Turkish General Assembly Agenda.
  • EU harmonisation on fisheries is carried out through twinning and technical assistance. Click here to access the information on Turkish – EU Financial Cooperation. 
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