Trout which prefers clear, clean, cool and oxygen-rich waters in terms of living environment, is among the fish recognised by our people especially with its delicious meat. Although rainbow trout and the brook trout (salvelinus fortinalis) were brought to Europe from North America almost in the same years, 120 years ago, due to its features appropriate to culture conditions, rainbow trout farming has shown a rapid increase and today has become an industry. The appropriate features of rainbow trout for aquaculture can be specified as follows:
- Besides its feature of adjusting to environmental conditions very well, the rainbow trout is relatively resistant to high temperatures.
- It actively has its feed and this facilitates feeding; and it grows well as its feed conversion rate is high.
- It has a short incubation period in higher spring temperatures compared to other trout species such as brook trout (salvelinus fortinalis), brown trout (salmo trutta fario).
Sea bass and sea bream are more common in the southern shores and in the Aegean coasts of our country. Generally dispersed in tropical, semi-tropical and temperate zones, sea bream lives in sandy-muddy and muddy environments. It is also very common in the river mouths and lagoons. It feeds especially on crustaceans and molluscs.
The back of sea bass is gray or greenish black, its sides are silvery and its belly is white. There are 1 or 2 stickles on its opercula and black spots at the top. Its mouth is wide, the teeth located on the palate and tongue. Its body is long and thin. Its length which can reach 1 m is 50 cm on average and its weight can reach 12 kg.
Sea breams take different local names according to their weights in Turkey. Those with a weight of 30-50 grams are called thin lidaki, those with a weight of 100 grams are called lidaki, those with a weight of 100-180 grams are called coarse lidaki and those with
200 grams and over are called sea bream. It has an oval body, a large head, a blunt nose and prominent lips. There is a V-shaped strap between the eyes. Its back is gray and dark blue in colour. The average length of a sea bream which can reach 70 cm at maximum is 25-40 cm.
Sea bream and sea bass grow best at temperatures between 22-24 °C; they can live in lethal temperature ranges, but the temperature range they can survive is 3-34 0C. Salinity value is between 05-040%. Appropriate dissolved oxygen level in aquaculture is approximately 7-8 mg / l. Although they live in shallow waters (0.5 to 9 m) in summer, they migrate to the deeper (35-40 m) waters in winter.
Carp, which is a type of economic importance in temperate climates, is very suitable for aquaculture since it favours heat and is resistant to cold. It needs a small amount of oxygen, is not sensitive to the processes such as size grading, being caught with trawl net and weighing, and not injured easily during the cultivation. It easily adjusts itself to changes in water temperature between 4-30°C in a short time period.
Carp culture, also known as Mirror Carp, is the cultured form of common carp. It is a species having a back higher than the common carp; it is stocky, large part of its body is scaleless, its scales scattered around different parts of the body; it is round, fast-growing and well-adjusted to the artificial cultivation conditions and its feed assessment is high.